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Design of all technical protection systems

Fire protection

Fire protection is a complex field, which is considered to be of special interest in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Because of this status, this field is regulated by laws and bylaws (rulebooks, instructions, decisions, plans, etc.). Before we move to specific requirements that all legal entities have to fulfil, here is a list of some of these important documents:

    • Law on fire protection and fire extinguishing
    • Law on construction
    • Law on the norms
    • Methodology for fire protection and technological explosion assessments
    • Rulebook on classification of buildings, parts of buildings, and premises in respective fire threat categories
    • Rulebook on fire protection of high-rise buildings
    • Rulebook on fire protection of buildings for public use
    • Rulebook on selection and maintenance of initial fire extinguishers sold with warranty and servicing schedule
    • Rulebook on technical norms for external and internal hydrant network for fire extinguishing
    • Rulebook on technical norms for fire resistant automated door closers and flaps
    • Rulebook on technical norms for protection of storages against fire, explosion, etc.

Based on the aforementioned regulations and European best practices, every legal entity is required to produce the following documents in the field of fire protection:

    • Rulebook on fire protection • Elaboration on fire protection • Fire threat assessment • Fire protection plan for all buildings • Evacuation plan for all buildings • Training of staff in the field of fire protection and work safety

In addition, the legal entity is required to conduct:

    • Testing and quality certification of fire alarm systems • Testing and quality certification of electrical installations • Testing and quality certification of lightning protection installations • Testing and quality certification of fire extinguishers throughout their buildings • Testing and quality certification of fire extinguishing hydrants for all buildings • Testing and quality certification of evacuation lights for all buildings • Testing and quality certification of door closers for fire protection doors and flaps • Gas detection

Elements of a gas detection system are:

    • Gas alarm switchboard • Sensors • Manual fire alarms

The main purpose of gas detection elements is to report potential threat of gas related incidents, such as gas poisoning or explosion. Threats are reported autonomously (sensors) or manually (manual fire alarms). According to current regulations, it is necessary to use wired gas detection elements and installations with specific cabling. In addition to relevant authorities, it is also important to notify the tenants and initiate the evacuation sequence program for either the residents of small buildings or tenants in housing blocks, corporate, and public buildings. These systems include a combination of signaling elements, intercom systems, and movement control systems for the purpose of notification about the incident and evacuation of people to prevent any casualties. Another important integration of gas detection protection pertains to power supply, heating, air conditioning, and ventilation systems, which enables controlled and targeted disconnection of power sources, shutting down heating and air conditioning, and turning on natural or forced ventilation. Both groups of functions need to be initiated simultaneously.

Fire detection

The fire detection system makes timely alerts about fire breakout, enabling intervention prior to fire reaching serious and devastating proportions. The fire protection engineers who design the system bear a lot of responsibility for an adequate choice of elements depending on the type of protected building, its structure, purpose, and technology. Proper execution of fire detection designs and systems, complemented with other fire protection measures (such as evacuation routes, fire extinguishers and hydrants, smoke ventilation systems, fireproof doors, water curtains, automated fire extinguishing systems, etc.) can reduce the consequences of fires to a minimum. All installed equipment and systems have to conform to the regulations and instructions of manufacturers, relevant standards, and international best practices. A very important element is a proper choice of devices and equipment, which has to be of good quality, tested, certified, and verified. The reliability of the whole system depends on the quality of installed elements, proper handling, regular maintenance, servicing, and period testing.

There are two primary types of fire detection systems

    • Conventional system
    • Analog addressable system
    • Conventional system

This system operates in a way that the switchboard monitors a certain number of lines to which a specific number of conventional fire detectors are connected. In case of fire detection, the fire alarm switchboard reports an alarm signal in the respective area. After the alarm signal is received, actions are taken based on the Alarm Plan defined in the Fire Protection Plan. It is not possible for the switchboard to identify which sensor was activated, so in case of larger number of rooms it is necessary to use indicators outside of the rooms. The standards for these systems limit the number of detectors that can be installed on one line (EN54 standard provides up to 30 detectors on one line). Fire detectors use the following principles for fire detection: temperature, presence of smoke, and flame flickering. In case of breakup or short circuit on the line, not more than one zone may fall out of function, i.e. not more than 30 detectors. This requirement is important for use of modern analog addressable systems.

Analog addressable systems

Fire detector operating principle is the same as in conventional detectors with the additionally installed addressable element (a number that determines the exact location). Now the switchboard can communicate and supervise each individual element of the system and the line can support more detectors. The EN54 standard provides that one line must not support more than 128 elements, including detectors and other elements of the system. To fulfil the line outage requirement, detectors are connected in a loop (the line starts and ends in the system switchboard). In case of outage in one place, all detectors continue to work, because the loop is powered from both sides.

    • Exact location of a detector that caused the alarm or malfunction signal • Assigning text to the detector or a group of detectors • Keeping time records of events • Event memory (that can be subsequently reviewed) • Simpler and cheaper wiring • Printed reports from the switchboard on all events

Detektori na upit centralne šalju, pored svoje adrese i tipa detektora, informaciju o stanju detektora. Centrala obrađuje taj podatak, usporeduje ga s programiranim za taj tip detektora. Ako je dobijena vrijednost veća od programirane, centralni uređaj šalje signal alarma detektoru, koji tek tada uključuje svoju signalizaciju. Pored toga centrala može poslati nalog i nekom drugom elementu linijskog uređaja da izvrši programiranu komandu (uključenje sirena, aktiviranje modula za gašenje požara, isključenje klapni i klima komora, zatvaranje PP vrata, napajanja itd.). Više ovakvih sistema je moguće uvezati (integrisati) u jedan nadzorni centar.

Upon request, the detectors send the switchboard their address and type, as well as a detector status report. The switchboard processes this information and compares it to default settings for this type of detector. If the value is higher than default, the central device sends the alarm signal to the detector and the signaling is turned on only at that time. In addition, the switchboard can send an instruction to another element of the line device to execute the preprogrammed command (turning on the siren, activating fire extinguishing modules, turning of flaps and air conditioning facilities, closing fireproof doors, turning of power supply, etc.). Several of these systems can be integrated into one monitoring center.

Connecting these systems is simpler and the reliability is higher because any subsystem can operate even in case the communication with the monitoring center is interrupted. These modern systems enable full monitoring and management of subsystems from the central location.

Connection to the graphic terminal (PC with the necessary software) enables a quick and clear view of the system and elements of the system in which the new event was generated (alarm, malfunction, shutdown, etc.).

As an authorized agency for equipment made by INIM and Notifier we offer designing, delivery, and installation of the following equipment:
• Microprocessor switchboard
• Fire detectors
• External modules for connection of individual subsystems – signaling devices, classic detectors, and management of fire extinguishing systems
• Aerosols and other fire extinguishing equipment
• Cabling and other equipment required for proper functioning of these systems

In addition, DSC d.o.o. Sarajevo is authorized by the Federal Ministry of Energy, Mining, and Industry for periodic inspections, measuring, and testing, as well as issuing quality certificates for these systems.

Fire extinguishing with FM 200 gas

FM200 is a liquid gas with a chemical formula CF3CHCF, which is held in tanks under 24.8 bars of pressure at 20 degrees Celsius and used as a highly effective fire extinguisher. According to the NFPA 2001 standard, the FM200 gas is commercially available under the name HFC-227ea.

FM200 gas is safe for people located in the premises at the time of automated fire extinguishing, it is colorless and odorless, poses no risk of increased pressure in the premises. It is also not an electrical conduit, which makes it perfect for protection of electronics and electrical equipment. It extinguishes fire very quickly, within 10 seconds after activation.

FM200 liquid gas does not contain elements that cause damage to the ozone layer, which makes it one of the replacements to the forbidden Halon 1301 or the Halon 1211 that was used to fill manual fire extinguishers.

To ensure complete effectiveness of extinguishing, the project design must be made properly and with required installation quality solutions.

The time of discharge of the extinguisher must be within 10 seconds and because this extinguisher does not tolerate long piping the tanks must be as close to the protected area as possible.

In addition to the extinguishing agent, the following are important components of the fire extinguishing system:
• Correct calculations for pipelines and time of extinguishing, flow quantity, pressure drops, and selection of sprinklers.
• FM200 tanks are standard in terms of volume and maximum load.
• Each tanks includes an automated valve which is tested together with the tank.
• Gas is stored under 24.8 bars of pressure at 20 degrees Celsius.
• Safety valve opening pressure is 55 bars.
• Operating temperature range is between -18 and + 55 degrees Celsius.
• The automated valve at the end of the pipeline, which can be activated electrically, pneumatically, in a combined fashion, or manually.

Elements used for automated fire detection are thermal maximum and smoke detectors, which react based on preset temperature and smoke quantity selected based on the specifics of the technological process in the protected area.

Manual fire detectors are installed close to exits from the protected area. The "fire" signal received from either automated or manual fire detector goes to the fire protection switchboard where it is processed and transmitted. The switchboard registers this signal with light and sound and transmits it to relevant alarm sirens in the protected area and the relevant distribution valve which is opened. It is also sent to distribution panels powering the ventilation, which are turned off. After a time delay, the switchboard activates the automated valve on the pipeline and automatically shoots off the FM200 gas and extinguishes the fire within 10 seconds. Activation of a manual fire detector activates the installation instantaneously. In case of false activation of manual or automated fire detectors or in case of inability to timely evacuate the protected area in case of system activation, one can hold the release of CO2 during the trigger delay by pressing the blockade button. Because of its specific use it needs to be installed in a separate cabinet with protective glass to avoid its accidental activation. Even a mere 7% concentration of FM200 gas in the room successfully extinguishes all types of fire and is completely harmless to people in the protected area at the time when the system is activated. It is therefore ideal for protection of computer centers, telephone switchboards, and areas full of electronics, galleries, vaults, etc.

Powder fire extinguishing system (AEROSOL)

This product is an approved replacement for Halon which was one of the most reliable fire extinguishers. Because it causes damage to the ozone layer and has a harmful effect on environment and people, Halon was banned by the Montreal Protocol upon recommendation of the London Institute for Fire Protection. The FPG Aerosol fire extinguisher was initially developed for fire extinguishing in submarines but was made available for commercial use after Halon was banned. The aerosol includes 60% of alkaline metals and 40% of specialized gas. After initiation, the solid matter quickly turns into an expanding fire extinguishing aerosol released through the holes on the device and spreads through the protected area in the form of smoke and dust. The aerosol containing micron particles is released into the area contaminated with fire and extinguishes it. The pressure of activation enables the aerosol to be released in the form of a free spray. The aerosol created by the FPG fire protection generator for fire extinguishing prevents burning and extinguishes fire. It does NOT remove oxygen and does NOT undercool but prevents a CHEMICAL burning reaction at the molecular level without impacting the level of oxygen. Fire and smoke generated during fire extinguishing are environmentally harmless, non-toxic, do not cause short circuits on electrical appliances, and do not cause ozone layer degradation. The aerosol is used for extinguishing fires of classes A, B, and C and for fire extinguishing in electrical facilities, high voltage electronic devices, generators, maritime devices, home appliances, and all electricity powered devices. The canisters filled with aerosol fire extinguishing agent are made of stainless steel, which guarantees longevity and resistance to external factors and physical damage. Aerosol fire extinguishing system is simple to develop and install. In terms of aerosol fire extinguishing canister installation there are no traditional gas tanks, jets, pipes, and installation fittings (valves, reductors), there are no costs of procurement and transportation of spare parts and their storage, there is no costly design and piping normally present with conventional fire extinguishing systems that use water, foam, FM-200, CO2, inert and other gases, etc. These canisters include a body, adequate overhang, and jets. In terms of overhang installation it is necessary to foresee the weight and force impact caused by the aerosol in case of activation.

Canisters filled with fire extinguisher are activated through a central device of the alarm system. Detection elements used are thermal maximum and smoke detectors, which reach based on preset temperature and amount of smoke selected based on the specificity of the technological process in protected areas. Manual fire detectors are installed near the exits from the protected area and are used for direct activation of the system. The "fire" signal received from either automated or manual fire detector goes to the fire protection switchboard where it is processed and transmitted. The switchboard registers this signal with light and sound and transmits it to relevant alarm sirens in the protected area and the distribution panels powering the ventilation, which are turned off. After a time delay, the switchboard activates the electric valve on aerosol generator the automated fire extinguishing occurs within 10 to 20 seconds. Proper operation of the fire extinguishing system using the aerosol agent requires regular inspection of functionality and status of the system.

The main features of the aerosol fire extinguishing system are the following:
• More efficient than any other conventional fire extinguishing system,
• Agent is filled in pressure-free tanks,
• Do not harm the environment or the ozone layer,
• ODP =0 (Ozone Depletion Potential),
• GWP=0 (Global Warming Potential),
• ALT = Negligent (Atmospheric Life Time),
• Non-corrosive – no damage to property,
• Non-poisonous – no harm to humans, animals, or plants,
• Can be active by any conventional alarm system,
• Delivered in many various shapes and sizes (depending on the volume of space being protected),
• Minimum maintenance requirements,
• No aesthetic burden for the interior design and are easily removed from site,
• Come with 5 (five) year warranty,
• Lifespan of more than 10 years.


Because of the aforementioned, FPG aerosol fire extinguishing systems are used for protection of the following types of protected areas:
• IT areas,
• Server rooms,
• Telecommunication areas,
• Electrical facilities,
• Industrial areas with valuable equipment,
• Libraries,
• Museums,
• Art galleries,
• Warehouses with flammable liquids.


Carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system

The most cost-efficient agent for fire extinguishing in warehouses with flammable liquids is CO2 (carbon dioxide). CO2 is a colorless gas, other than appearing like a cloud at the discharge. Inhaling of small quantities causes itching in the throat and nose. It is heavier than air and does not contain oxygen. Higher concentrations reduce the share of oxygen in the air below the burning threshold, which stops any further burning process. CO2 is stored in pressurized steel bottles in liquid form. Based on storage pressure COS systems include:

• High pressure system in which CO2 is stored in cooled tanks
• Low pressure system in which CO2 is stored in pressurized bottles in liquid form.


Each bottle has a quick release valve that includes a safety valve preventing pressures in excess of the tested bottle pressure. Bottles are kept in spaces separate from the protected area and in rooms next to protected areas. A group of fire extinguishing bottles forms a battery of bottles. Each row of bottles is used for fire extinguishing in specific rooms.

Each bottle has a specific volume and includes a quick release valve that uses a flexible hose to connect the bottle with the release muzzle. A check valve is installed on the flexible hose to prevent flow of CO2 in the opposite direction. Each bottle hangs on a scale that constantly controls the weight of CO2 filling in the bottle. The scale reacts if the weight of CO2 filling is reduced by more than 10% or 5 kg, when the malfunction signal is triggered on the fire protection switchboard and the weight position on the scale itself is in the lower position of released bottle.

Elements used for automated fire detection are thermal maximum and smoke detectors, which react based on preset temperature and smoke quantity selected based on the specifics of the technological process in the protected area. Manual fire detectors are installed close to exits from the protected area. The "fire" signal received from either automated or manual fire detector goes to the fire protection switchboard where it is processed and transmitted. The switchboard registers this signal with light and sound and transmits it to relevant alarm sirens in the protected area and the relevant distribution valve which is opened using the electrical-mechanical trigger. It is also sent to distribution panels powering the ventilation, which are turned off. After a time delay, the switchboard activates the electric-mechanical trigger on the pilot bottle of the respective CO2 battery, which pneumatically opens all other valves on the bottles. This time delay is required to ensure that all personnel safely evacuate the protected from the moment the "fire" signal is received and alarm sirens are activated because concentration of CO2 poses a health hazard.

In case of false activation of manual or automated fire detectors or in case of inability to timely evacuate the protected area in cases of system activation, the discharge of CO2 can be halted at any time during the time delay period by activating the CO2 stoppage button. Because of its specific use it needs to be installed in a separate cabinet with protective glass to avoid its accidental activation. After activation of battery of bottles, the CO2 gas is lead to the protected area through a pipeline and CO2 fills out the protected are after being released through the muzzles.

In addition to remote activation there is also a possibility for manual activation in two ways:
• Manual remote, using the electric button of the manual fire detector located near the door of the protected are
• Manual mechanic, using the ELECTROMAGNETIC SWITCH installed on the PILOT BOTTLE.

1999.

THE YEAR OF ESTABLISHMENT

The agency for protection of people and property "DSC" d.o.o. Sarajevo was established in early 1999 as the Center for Electronic Surveillance and Monitoring of Facilities.

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EMPLOYEES

Eleven of our staff are university graduates, which is the best proof of investment into the quality of our human resources.

+100

SATISFIED CLIENTS

Our clients are our best reference. Most of our clients are successful financial institutions, pharmaceutical companies, education, medical, and public institutions, insurance companies, and renowned retail brands.

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